Class Descriptions – Sexual Content

How to Use This Page - Overview

This page gives a more detailed overview of Hive's visual moderation classes related to sexual and explicit content. If you need further details on these classes after reading the main Visual Moderation page, look here. We'll enumerate, as clearly as possible, which types of sexual subject matter are covered by each class in our models.

Because all platforms have different moderation requirements and risk sensitivities, we recommend that you consult these descriptions carefully as you decide which classes to build into your moderation logic. At the end of the day, it's up to you to decide which classes are important to monitor based on your content policies.

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NOTE:

To determine which class(es) cover specific types of visual content, it may be helpful to search this page (Ctrl/Cmd + F) with terms for that subject matter rather than looking for it in specific class descriptions.

General Notes

Before looking at subject matter breakdowns for each class, it is helpful to understand the following:

  1. Hive's visual classifier is multi-headed. Each model head defines a group of categorizations we call classes. Each model head includes at least one positive class (e.g., yes_hot_dog) and a negative class (e.g., no_hot_dog). Scores returned for each class represent the model's certainty that the image meets our ground truth definition for the category. This page attempts to explain these ground truth definitions as clearly as possible.

  2. Classifications for each model head are made independently. In other words, if an image scores highly in multiple classes, the image meets our definitions for each class. Confidence scores from each model head are generated separately and are not correlated in and of themselves. It's easiest to think of this as asking multiple different models (that may or may not overlap in scope) to classify an image.

  3. As a corollary, a high confidence score in negative classes (e.g., no_sex_toy, no_sexual_activity) does not mean the image is clean in general. This is simply the logical opposite of the positive classification; the subject matter captured by the positive class in that model head is not present. For example, an image that scores 0.99 in no_sexual_activity can still score highly in yes_sex_toy, yes_male_nudity, or any other class trained to flag other subject matter. For this reason, we will describe these negative classes as a non-exhaustive list of subject matter that is not captured by the positive classes in that model head but that might be helpful to distinguish what is and is not flagged by that model head (e.g., borderline content, content captured by other classes).

  4. For some classes, the model classifies animations, drawings, diagrams, paintings, or other artwork in the same way as photographs or photorealistic images. We will specify which model heads this does or does not apply to in the detailed description.

  5. More specific model heads (e.g., swimwear, underwear, shirtless) are intended to provide more granular understanding of the image; many customers do not moderate on these classes individually. Some combination of general_nsfw, yes_realistic_nsfw, and yes_sexual_intent would be sufficient to capture sexual or explicit content. general_suggestive can also be used to flag milder images depending on your content policy.

NSFW Head

This is our main, broadly inclusive model head for explicit and/or sexual content . The NSFW head includes two umbrella classes – general_nsfw and general_suggestive – that broadly capture explicit and less explicit sexual content. These classes typically overlap with other, more specific sexual classes.

Specifically, general_nsfw also captures images that score highly in sexual_activity, realistic_nsfw, sex_toy, female_nudity, and male_nudity classes. Similarly, general_suggestive also captures images that score highly in female_underwear, male_underwear, female_swimwear, male_shirtless, and sexual_intent classes.

You can also use these narrower classes to AVOID flagging certain subject matter captured by general_nsfw or general_suggestive if those images are allowable on your platforms. For example, a platform that is fine with swimwear but wants to flag other content on the suggestive side of the spectrum could: (1) allow content scoring above 0.9 in both general_suggestive AND yes_female_swimwear and (2) flag other images scoring over 0.9 in general_suggestive.

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TL;DR

The NSFW classes – general_nsfw and general_suggestive – can be used broadly to flag images as sexually explicit/suggestive without a more detailed understanding of their contents.

The NSFW head also flags drawings, artwork, and diagrams that depict relevant sexual subject matter. Collages and other grid/compound images are labeled according to the most explicit image they contain.

Subject Matter Breakdown by Class

general_nsfw – depicts nudity, sex acts, sexual objects, and/or sexually explicit imagery. Captures:

  • Genitals, buttocks and/or anus, female nipples
  • Full nudity even if genitals and nipples are covered or not visible (e.g., side view)
  • Vaginal fluids and semen
  • Sex acts with clear nudity (see sexual_activity description for more detail)
  • Clear or strongly implied sex acts without full nudity or visible genitals
  • Sex toys (see sex_toys description for more detail)
  • Textbook or other illustrations of genitalia
  • Genitals or female nipples plainly visible through transparent, sheer, or mesh clothing

general_suggestive: does not depict full nudity or other explicit sexual content but subject matter can be considered sexually suggestive or inappropriate. Captures:

  • Chest area, breasts without visible nipples, pubic region or areas around genitals with no genitals visible, butt cheeks
  • Partial nudity where with nipples and/or genitals covered by hands or objects (note: similar images where the buttocks are completely visible would be classified as general_nsfw)
  • Shirtless men
  • Person wearing only underwear or swimwear
  • Clear masturbation without nudity or genitalia visible (e.g., hands in pants)
  • Kissing with visible tongue
  • Touching or grabbing breasts, genitals, or butts over clothing
  • Nipple or genital outline visible through non-transparent clothing

general_not_nsfw_not_suggestive – does not contain sexually explicit or suggestive imagery (clean). For clarity, this also includes:

  • Kissing without tongue
  • Unclothed mannequins, Barbie dolls, etc.
  • Unclothed babies or toddlers
  • Leggings and yoga pants
  • Images or frames from porn films where no nudity or sexual content is shown
  • Animals mating with no humans present
Heat-map approximating our sexual model's ground truth definitions for nudity. In general, green areas visible only should not be flagged; yellow and green areas visible only should be flagged as suggestive; red areas visible should be flagged as NSFW.Heat-map approximating our sexual model's ground truth definitions for nudity. In general, green areas visible only should not be flagged; yellow and green areas visible only should be flagged as suggestive; red areas visible should be flagged as NSFW.

Heat-map approximating our sexual model's ground truth definitions for nudity. In general, green areas visible only should not be flagged; yellow and green areas visible only should be flagged as suggestive; red areas visible should be flagged as NSFW.

Sexual Activity Head

This model head flags sexual actions such as intercourse and masturbation. This is a subset of content flagged by general_NSFW, oriented more toward pornographic images depicting sexual activity. This head uses the same rules for animated images, drawings and artwork.

Subject Matter Breakdown by Class

yes_sexual_activity: depicts sexual intercourse, masturbation, and similar acts of genital stimulation. Captures:

  • Sexual intercourse
  • Masturbation
  • Oral sex involving genitals, anus, or breasts
  • Kissing while at least one person is also nude
  • Any touching of genitals
  • Semen or vaginal fluids on faces and other body parts (e.g., stomach)
  • Sex toys penetrating mouth, anus, or genitals
  • Sex toys being used on someone outside the frame
  • Bondage in a sexual setting

no_sexual_activity: image does not depict ongoing sexual acts. Does not imply the image is the clean. To clarify, the following is not captured by the yes_sexual_activity class:

  • Nudity without sexual actions – including nude modeling, nude selfies, and outdoor nude photos without touching of genitals
  • Kissing without nudity
  • Touching genitals or buttocks over clothing or underwear
  • Women touching or covering their own breasts
  • Sex toys not in active use
  • Restrains, harnesses etc. outside of sexual settings

Realistic NSFW Head

Narrower than the general NSFW head, this model head classifies images with real nudity (i.e., photographs) or nudity in photorealistic images, animations and drawings. The Realistic NSFW head differentiates these depictions of nudity from more abstract representations such as art or textbook diagrams.

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TL;DR

Use this class (e.g., instead of general_nsfw) to flag nudity and sexual activity, but ignore nudity depicted in art such as sculptures and paintings, or in educational settings such as textbook diagrams, models, etc.

Note: The Realistic NSFW head classifies photorealistic art or animations in the same way as photographs of real subject matter. Classical sculptures and paintings, educational diagrams etc. are to be classified as no_realistic_nsfw.

Subject Matter Breakdown By Class

yes_realisitic_nsfw: the image includes nudity that is both representational and non-artistic in nature. Captures:

  • Photorealistic nudity or sex acts (i.e., photorealistic representations or photos of real subject matter) – see description of general_nsfw for detailed subject matter breakdown
  • Nudity in animated pornography
  • Non-artistic drawings (e.g., doodles, graffiti) depicting nudity, breasts, or genitalia
  • Images with both artistic and non-artistic nudity

no_realistic_nsfw: image does not depict nudity or only depicts artistic nudity. May not mean the image is clean. For example, yes_realistic_nsfw does not flag the following:

  • Classical sculptures or paintings with nude or partially nude subjects
  • Nudity depicted in medical or textbook diagrams
  • Sex toys
  • People wearing only underwear or swimwear
  • Shirtless men
  • Topless women with nipples and areola fully covered
  • Shown or implied sex acts without visible nudity or visibly exposed pelvic region
  • Pubic area with no visible genitalia
  • Clothed people with artistic nudity in the same image

Female Underwear Head

This model head flags images of women wearing (visible) underwear or bras that are not covered by clothing. It does not capture female nudity or underwear by itself (i.e., not being worn)

For this head, animations, drawings, art, and other representational depictions follow the same definitions as photographs.

Subject Matter Breakdown by Class

yes_female_underwear: the image depicts one or more people wearing female underwear that is clearly visible. Captures:

  • Women wearing visible underwear, panties, thongs, bootyshorts etc.(without clothing or uncovered by clothing)
  • Women wearing visible bras or sports bras (without clothing or uncovered by clothing)
  • Women wearing lingerie (without clothing or uncovered by clothing)
  • Women's underwear visible under a dress or skirt
  • Women's underwear visible over the waist of pants
  • Women's underwear visible through transparent, sheer, or mesh clothing
  • Women wearing panties, thongs, etc. but no bra (and the converse)
  • Women in the process taking off/removing underwear (including bra)
  • Clothes, underwear, or other objects not being worn but covering genitals similarly to underwear

no_female_underwear: the image does not show female underwear/bras OR shows these items but a person is not wearing them. For clarity, the following is not captured by yes_female_underwear:

  • Panties, thongs, bras, etc. are shown but not worn by a person (e.g., on a hanger, on the floor)
  • Men wearing boxers, briefs, jockstraps etc.
  • Bras with only the strap visible (no cup)
  • Nude men or women
  • Swimwear (bikinis, one piece suimsuits etc.), worn or otherwise
  • Clothing worn without underwear

Male Underwear Head

This model head flags images of men wearing (visible) underwear that is are not covered by other clothing or only partially covered. It does not capture male nudity or underwear by itself (i.e., not being worn)

For this head, animations, drawings, art, and other representational depictions follow the same definitions as photographs.

Subject Matter Breakdown by Class

yes_male_underwear: image depicts depicts one or more people wearing men's underwear that is clearly visible. Captures:

  • Men wearing boxers, briefs, boxer briefs, jockstraps, thongs, etc.
  • Any of the above items not being worn but being used to cover male genitals
  • Underwear mostly visible above low-worn pants (e.g., sagging)
  • Underwear visible through unzipped pants/shorts

no_male_underwear: image does depict boxers, briefs, jockstraps, etc. OR shows these items but they are not being worn. For clarity, yes_male_underwear does not flag:

  • Men wearing swimwear (including speedos)
  • Naked men
  • Women wearing underwear
  • Underwear like boxers or boxer briefs only visible above the waistline
  • Men's underwear worn such that only the waistband is visible

Sex Toy Head

This model head captures images where any type sex toy or objects intended for sexual pleasure are shown (even if not in use). Note: this model head does not flag common objects being used as sex toys.

For this head, animations, drawings, and other representational depictions follow the same definitions as photographs.

Subject Matter Breakdown by Class

yes_sex_toy: a sex toy or similar object is visible anywhere in the image, including:

  • Dildos, vibrators, and the like
  • Sex dolls
  • Fleshlights
  • Harnesses, restraints, or other equipment intended for bondage
  • Butt plugs or beads

no_sex_toy: the image does not depict sex toys. For clarity, yes_sex_toy does not capture:

  • Nudity and organic genitalia
  • Glory holes (in use or otherwise)
  • Common objects used or implied to be usable as sex toys
  • Phallic-looking bongs, pipes, hookahs etc.
  • Microphones etc. designed to look like sex toys

Female Nudity Head

This model head flags images that depict naked women or female genitalia. Art, animations, drawings, etc. follow the same definitions as real photographs.

Subject Matter Breakdown by Class

yes_female_nudity: the image depicts a naked woman, female genitalia, and/or breasts. Captures:

  • Exposed female genitalia or anus
  • Visible female nipples or areola
  • Bare buttocks, including side angles
  • Any of the above visible through see-through, sheer, or mesh clothing
  • Pubic hair visible around female crotch region, even if genitals are not shown
  • Sex acts including a nude female

no_female_nudity: the image does not depict a naked woman, female genitalia, and/or breasts. For clarity, the following subject matter is not flagged by yes_female_nudity:

  • An undressed woman where breasts/nipples, genitals, or buttocks are not visible in the image
  • Women covering nipples and/or genitals with hands or other objects
  • Naked men
  • Sex acts without visible female nudity
  • Sex toys
  • Women wearing underwear or swimwear

Male Nudity Head

This model head flags images that depict male nudity as indicated by visible male genitalia or bare buttocks. Art, animations, drawings and other representational depictions follow the same definitions as photographs for this class.

Subject Matter Breakdown by Class

yes_male_nudity: the image depicts male genitalia and/or exposed (male) buttocks. The subject does not necessarily need to be completely undressed. Captures:

  • Visible penis and/or testicles
  • Male buttocks and/or anus visible without clothing
  • Sex acts where any of the above is visible
  • Penis and/or testicles visible through see-through, sheer, or mesh clothing
  • Penis or testicles sticking out of underwear/pants
  • The above also applies to transgender individuals

no_male_nudity: the image does not depict male genitalia or exposed male buttocks. For clarity, the following subject matter is not captured by yes_male_nudity:

  • Men wearing only underwear
  • Shirtless men
  • Female nudity
  • Dildos and other phallic sex toys
  • Sexual activity where penis, testicles and male buttocks are not visible

Female Swimwear Head

This model head flags images of women wearing visible swimwear (e.g., without other clothing). It does not capture underwear such as regular bras and panties, nor does it flag nudity.

Art, animations, drawings, and other representational depictions follow the same definitions as photographs for this model head.

Subject Matter Breakdown by Class

yes_female_swimwear: the image depicts a woman wearing swimwear. Specifically, this class would flag:

  • A female wearing any of the following:
    • One-piece bathing suit
    • Two-piece bathing suit
    • Bikini
    • Microbikini
  • Female wearing a wetsuit with regular swimwear visible underneath (e.g., top half off or unzipped)

no_female_swimwear: the image does not depict a woman wearing swimwear. To be clear, the following subject matter would not be flagged by yes_female_swimwear:

  • Female wearing a wetsuit covering legs and torso
  • Panties, bras, sports bras, or any other type of regular underwear
  • Female nudity
  • Males, even if wearing revealing or feminine swimwear

Shirtless Male Head

This model head flags images of males that are topless/bare-chested. Images of males wearing see-through or sheer clothing or stringer-type tank tops may also be flagged if nipples or lower torso is visible.

Art, animations, drawings, and other representational depictions follow the same definitions as photographs for this model head.

Subject Matter Breakdown by Class

yes_male_shirtless: the image depicts a bare-chested male. Specifically this class would flag images showing:

  • Male with abdominal area between belly button and nipples visible
  • Topless male
  • Fully nude male (if torso is in the frame)
  • Male removing his shirt such that belly button and/or nipples are visible
  • Male wearing see-through, sheer, or mesh clothing such that torso is visible
  • Male wearing a crop-top shirt such that belly button or above is visible
  • Male wearing a stringer or tank-top with nipples visible

no_male_shirtless: the image does not depict a bare-chested or topless male. To be clear, the following subject matter would not be flagged by the yes_male_shirtless class:

  • Topless or naked females
  • Male removing his shirt without nipples or belly visible ??? back is fine?
  • Male wearing stringer, tank top or crop top without nipples or belly button visible

Sexual Intent Head

This model head captures images that depict sexual acts, even if the explicit parts of the image have been cropped, blurred, or otherwise occluded.

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USAGE:

This classification is broader than yes_sexual_activity, capturing both explicit/pornographic images and similar images that have been modified to obscure any nudity, penetration, etc.

Art, animations, drawings, and other representational depictions follow the definitions as photographs for this model head.

Subject Matter Breakdown by Class

yes_sexual_intent: the image depicts sexual activity (e.g., intercourse, masturbation, oral) or nudity that may be occluded by objects in the image or through image modification techniques. More specifically, this class captures images showing:

  • Clear sexual activity that has been blurred or pixelated
  • Clear sexual activity in the image's background or blocked by an object
  • Clear sexual activity that is not fully visible in the image frame (e.g., activity is not completely visible or occurring outside the frame)
  • Clear sexual activity that has been fully or partially covered by stickers, banners, ads, emojis, or other overlay elements
  • Nudity
  • Semen and vaginal fluids
  • Sexual activity that is not occluded
  • The image is meant to imply that sexual activity is occurring even if not explicitly shown
  • People in sexual positions or poses, even if the image does not contain nudity
  • Diagrams of sexual positions
  • Face close-ups in porn or other images of sexual activity
  • Slight but intentional nudity (e.g., flashing, strip tease, removing or lowering clothing cover)

no_sexual_intent: the image does not depict, imply, or otherwise reference nudity or sexual activity. To be clear, the following subject matter would not be captured by yes_sexual_intent:

  • People hugging or making non-sexual physical contact
  • Multiple people laying or sleeping in the same bed (no hanky-panky)
  • Kissing only
  • Licking feet or other non-sexual body parts
  • People wearing swimsuits or underwear in non-sexual situations if covering breasts, genitals etc.
  • Exposed body parts (chest, arms, legs etc.) IF the image is non-pornographic in origin/nature
  • Suggestive poses IF the original image did not depict nudity prior to any modifications
  • Yoga poses

Undressed Head

This model head can be used to flag images of subjects that are clearly nude, even if genitals, breasts, etc. are not visible due to pose or angle. This class will also flag similar images where privates are covered by hands, unworn clothing or other objects, or occluded by digital overlay.

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USAGE:

This class is intended to capture suggestive images that are less explicit than NSFW classes, but racier than some other images (e.g., underwear, shirtless) that would be flagged as suggestive. You can use this class in place of general_suggestive to exclude milder photos if allowable on your platform.

Art, illustrations, animations etc. follow the same definitions as photographs for these classes.

Subject Matter Breakdown by Class

yes_undressed: the image depicts a naked person. However, the image is still classified as yes_undressed if:

  • Genitalia, buttocks, and/or female nipples are not visible due to the subject's pose or the angle of the photo
  • These parts are covered by hands
  • These parts are covered by unworn clothing or other objects
  • These parts are covered, blurred, or occluded in post-editing by digital overlay (e.g., emojis, stickers, censure bars, text)
  • Female nipples are covered by stickers or body paint

Note: Images where the subject is undressed AND showing genitals, breasts, buttocks etc. will still be classified as yes_undressed.

no_undressed: the image does not depict an undressed subject. To be clear, the following would not be flagged by yes_undressed:

  • Images where a person is wearing clothing over genitals, buttocks and/or breasts, including underwear or swimwear
  • Images where a person is wearing a tightly wrapped bath or beach towel
  • Images where a person is most likely not fully naked (e.g., shirtless men, photos showing only legs or arms) even if their full body is not in the frame

Animal Genitalia Head

This model head can be used to flag sexual activity involving non-human animals and depictions of animal genitalia. Generally, this model head only captures sexual activity that is clearly recognizable as such; insects, birds, fish, and other animals that mate in non-obvious positions or without clearly identifiable genitalia are ignored.

For this model head, animations, drawings and other representational depictions of animal sexual activity or genitalia are flagged under a separate class: animated_animal_genitalia

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NOTE:

The animal_genitalia_only class will not be flagged by general_nsfw or other sexual classes. Similarly, animal_genitalia_and_human and animated_animal_genitalia may not be flagged if human nudity is not shown. In order to flag these types of content, you'll need to monitor these classes specifically.

Subject Matter Breakdown by Class

animal_genitalia_and_human: the image is a photograph of an animal and a human engaging in sexual activity. Specifically:

  • A human touching, licking, or penetrating animal genitalia
  • An animal touching or licking human genitalia or penetrating a human

animal_genitalia_only: the image is a photograph of animals mating or shows animal genitalia prominently.

animated_animal_genitalia: the image is an animation, drawing, or other representational depiction of:

  • Animals or animal-like creatures with distinguishable genitals
  • Animals or animal-like creatures engaged in sexual kissing, licking, penetration etc.
  • Monster-like creatures (e.g., dragons, aliens, fantasy characters) doing the same
  • Humanoid creatures with animal genitalia
  • Nude animated humans with animal-like features (e.g., tails, fur, animal ears)

no_animal_genitalia: the image does not depict animal genitalia or animals engaged in sexual activity. For clarity, the following subject matter is not flagged by the positive classes in this model head:

  • Animals playing or other non-mating contact between animals (e.g., hunting, animals laying on top of each other)
  • Mating between insects, birds, reptiles, fish, or other animals that mate in non-obvious positions or without clearly identifiable genitalia
  • A human milking a cow, sheep, etc.
  • Humans or other animals drinking from an udder
  • Sexual acts between humans
  • Animated humans or humanoid creatures engaging in sexual activity (including nudity)
  • Human sexual activities with stuffed animals present
  • Nudity or sexual activity where a person is wearing an animal costume or animal-themed accessories (e.g., cat ears)
  • A human using a sex toy modeled after animal genitalia